Begoray, D., & Slovinsky, K. (1997). Pearls in shells: Preparing teachers to accommodate gifted low income populations. Roeper Review, 20(1), 45. Retrieved from .....EBSCOhost.

This article tells the story of two different teachers and their plight to identify gifted students who come from low socioeconomic backgrounds. There is also information for teachers to help understand the backgrounds and family life of these students.

This may be the best and most direct information for teachers. I really like the way that the stories about the students and the information about how to serve them is all clearly laid out. This is definitely a resource that I will keep for my future classroom.

Callahan, Carolyn M. (2005). Identifying Gifted Students from Underrepresented Populations. Theory Into Practice. Retrieved June 27, 2011

This is a wonderful article that explores many different reasons that children who come from low socioeconomic backgrounds are not being identified for the gifted program. The article points to reasons such as the standardized tests, biased teacher identification and the lack of authentic assessments.

I found this article to be extremely informative and helpful in thinking about why students with a low socioeconomic background really are often overlooked for the gifted program. I found it interesting that this author brings up the idea of authentic assessments. Throughout all of my undergraduate education we were taught how important authentic assessments are in the classroom, and I found it comforting that this was reiterated in this article.

Cross, T. L. (2003). Leaving No Gifted Child Behind: Breaking Our Educational System of Privilege. Roeper Review, 25(3), 101. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

This article uses the American Psychological Associations resolution on Poverty and socioeconomic status and applies it to gifted children. The article states that if we work to help the gifted populations from low-income areas that we will, in turn, be helping the low-income areas to become better educated.

This is a great way to look at gifted children. Through helping them, we are helping their communities and environments, just as we do when we educate any student. I really like the spin that this article took on the information from the APA. I think that it brings valid points and really emphasizes the need to help gifted students everywhere.

Ford, Donna Y. (2003). Two Other Wrongs Don't Make a Right: Sacrificing the Needs of Diverse Students Does Not Solve Gifted Education's Unresolved
.....Problems. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 26(4), 283-291. Retrieved June 27, 2011

This wonderful journal article gives great insight into different ideas as to why children with low SES have been overlooked in the gifted program. It also compares the students with low SES to those that are culturally diverse, and explores the link between the two.

I think it is interesting that the journal compares the two groups: low-income and culturally diverse. Very often, in today’s society, they are linked or grouped together, as well. It is so important for gifted education to truly represent students who learn and achieve at high levels and not just students who come from a good, white family and have lots of money. This is an issue that we as educators need to consider.

Ford, D. Y., & Harmon, D. A. (2001). Equity and Excellence: Providing Access to Gifted Education for Culturally Diverse Students. Journal of Secondary Gifted
.....Education, 12(3). Retrieved from,

This article addresses many of the pressing issues that are facing gifted students, primarily those of minorities or those who come from low-income backgrounds. Issues such as testing methods and access are raised and discussed here.

This information directly corresponds to the information presented in other texts. It explains that the testing methods need to be changed and are exclusive, by nature. I also think that it is important that we allow all children access to the gifted program and not just those who are white, middle-class students. This article touches on this idea as well.

Ford, D. Y. & Thomas, A. (1997). Underachievement Among Gifted Minority Students: Problems and Promises. Eric EC Digests #E544. Retrieved June 28, 2011

This wonderful article discusses how many of the gifted students who come from low income backgrounds are often also in the category of gifted underachievers. The article begins by explaining underachievement and the many factors that create it – one being low income. Finally, it suggests ways to help improve this situation.

I thought that this was a very well written article. I loved the tables and checklists at the end that could actually be used in the classroom to help identify these students. I love the way the author has made the connection between the two subgroups of gifted students. So often, low SES gifted students are also minority underachievers, and under identified. I think it is important to realize this, as future teachers.

Jack Kent Cooke Foundation & Civic Enterprises. (2007). Achievement Trap: How America Is Failing Millions of High-Achieving Students from Lower-Income
.....Families. Washington, DC: Wyner, Bridgeland, DiIulio, Jr.

This report uses great research, statistics, and information to back up its notion that from day one, gifted students from lower income families are being left behind by our schooling system. It points out that as soon as they leave elementary school and enter middle and high school, the gap becomes even greater.

This is a very stimulating report to read as it really breaks down the statistics. It is so apparent that children from lower income families are not receiving the services that they need. It is a huge disservice to them and to their families. This article really pointed out many of the flaws of the system and will make me think twice about each student in my classroom.

Kitano, M. K. (2003). Gifted Potential and Poverty: A Call for Extraordinary Action. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 26(4). Retrieved

This intriguing journal article discusses how income level should be a more serious consideration for the identification of gifted students than race. It raises the point that if we pay more attention to income levels, then different races will naturally be considered.

This was an interesting twist on the information that I have gotten throughout the sources. It makes the natural connection between race and income level and analyzes how income levels have more of a factor than race. It also suggests having a transition phase for many of these low-income gifted learners. This would allow them to fill in any gaps that they may have in their learning due to their low SES. I thought this article raised some very interesting points and presented them in a new way.

Little, S., & Little, A. Assisting Counselors in Identifying Underrepresented Groups in Gifted Education [PDF document]. Retrieved

These slides show ways to help counselors aide in the process of identifying gifted students. It shows how many students, including those who come from low SES backgrounds, are overlooked in the gifted program.

I like that this resource gets more people involved in the process of identifying gifted students. Too often, I think it is left up to the classroom teachers. The more people are involved the better. I thought this was a great resource for both counselors and teachers because it gives valuable statistics while shining light on the issue of underrepresentation.

McBee, M. T. (2006). A Descriptive Analysis of Referral Sources for Gifted Identification Screening by Race and Socioeconomic Status. Journal of Secondary
.....Gifted Education, 17(2), 103-111. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

This article contains information about the differences in race and socioeconomic status within the gifted program. It also discusses the idea of teacher recommendation, which is a common method of gifted identification.

I thought that the most valuable information in this article was the charts and tables. It was fascinating to be able to see such a vast difference in the percentages of each race as well as each socioeconomic level within them. These numbers really do say it all. I also liked the information about teacher nomination. I feel like each piece of information I gain about this method can only help me when I go through the process with my students.

Friedman, R. C. (1994). Upstream Helping for Low-Income Families of Gifted Students: Challenges and Opportunities. Journal of Educational & Psychological
.....Consultation, 5(4), 321. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

While demonstrating two very different models, this article shows strategies that can be implored to understand the low socioeconomic families. This presents many of the challenges of working with some of these families and ways to make the relationship more successful.

I really appreciated that this article tries to explain the family model that many of the low-income families have and contrasted it with the typical gifted family model. I think it is important to understand the people you work with and makes the relationship more meaningful. I also thought that the ideas and suggestions it gave to help the communication and to encourage assistance were also extremely beneficial.

Olszewski-Kubilius, P. & Thomson, D. (2010). Gifted programming for poor or minority urban students: Issues and lessons learned. Gifted Child Today, 33(4),
.....58-64. Retrieved June 27, 2011 from,

The article focuses on urban, gifted students and the fact that many of them come from low socioeconomic backgrounds. It discusses how many of these students are once again, overlooked for gifted programs, if these programs even exist in their areas.

This article was fascinating to read and came from a little bit different perspective. It specifically focused of gifted children in the urban setting, which is often where many of the students with economically disadvantages come from. I was excited to hear that so many people were interested in helping these students.

Renzulli, J. S., & Park, S. (2002). Giftedness and high school dropouts: Personal, family, and school-related factors (RM02168). Storrs, CT: The National
.....Research Center on the Gifted and Talented, University of Connecticut.

Here you can find analysis of why it is more common for gifted children with low SES to drop out of high school. The information presented here is from a study that was conducted and ultimately places its conclusions on three main factors for dropping out.

High school dropout rates are certainly an alarming statistic. This study is so important to look at, as it lists socioeconomic status as part of its analysis. It stated that a much larger percentage of the gifted students that are dropping out are in a low socioeconomic bracket. I found this to be very interesting, but not altogether surprising. However, a shift in our gifted education program to make it more welcoming for all students may aid with this problem.

Samples, S. L. (2010). A Case Study of Minority and Low-SES Gifted Students’ Perceptions of the Effects of a Gifted Resource Specialist. Retrieved

This dissertation gives powerful data and support for having a Gifted Resource Specialist for students of minority and low SES. It shows the success and opportunities that the students in one area had, because of this person.

I found this to be powerful research. I think that a Gifted Resource Specialist is crucial for many students and provides a bit of a mentorship that so many students need. It also provides that stability that many of the minority and low-income students need in order to be successful academically. Having this personnel on hand would be a great asset to the school.

Shumow, L. (1997). Daily experiences and adjustment of gifted low-income urban children at home and school. Roeper Review, 20(1), 35. Retrieved from

This case study highlights the lives of three gifted students from low-income homes. It shows the struggles that they had to overcome and the added challenges that they had to face.

I found this case study to be extremely interesting. I thought that it was a true testament to the parents that their students were in the situations that they were. The parents seemed to be fairly dedicated and tried to make the best of their circumstances. Reading stories such as these can help teacher’s have a better grasp of their students’ backgrounds.

Slocumb, P. Equity in Gifted Education: A State Initiative [Powerpoint Presentation]. Retrieved from,

This presentation covers information created by a task force for the state of Texas. However, it presents information about poverty and how it affects the gifted population nationwide. The presentation looks into issues about how to make the gifted population more equitable.

I really enjoyed looking at this presentation even though it dealt directly with the state of Texas. I still thought many of the points and issues were very relevant. I liked many of the tables and charts that compared wealth to poverty and what the different classes of society look like. I think that this information proves to be true in any state and is valuable to any teacher.

Slocumb, P. D., & Payne, R. K. (2000). Identifying and Nurturing the Gifted Poor. Principal: The New Diversity, 79(5). Retrieved

This valuable resource gives a bit of insight into the family life of the low-income gifted students. It also addresses ways in which the gifted program can be tailored to meet the needs of these students.

I thought this article was very concise and well laid out. I like that you learned a little bit about the family life of these students, as well. I also like that it gives suggestions of how to make the classroom and the learning environment better for them. Looping was one of my favorite suggestions. I think that looping gifted teachers is a great way to keep some consistency in these students’ lives.

Slocumb, P. D., & Payne, R.D. (2000). Removing the Mask: Giftedness In Poverty. Retrieved

This book begins by describing the home life of a student in poverty. It goes on to explain how poverty plays its role in the classroom and how gifted identification and the program limits low SES families.

This is a great resource to have on hand in the classroom. I love the way it truly breaks down the different issues within the system in a way that is manageable and easy to understand. This would be a great pamphlet to hand out to all teachers, whether they are gifted-certified or otherwise. The graphics and charts display the issues and problems very well.

The Center for Comprehensive School Reform and Improvement. (2008). Gifted and Talented Students At Risk For Underachievement. Washington, DC: The
.....Learning Point.

This article gives an explanation of why students who come from low SES backgrounds are at risk for underachievement. Many of the students have so many other roles outside of simply being a student that they are unable to dedicate their talents to the classroom. This article provides questions that need to be asked by educators, a history of federal activity, and many other helpful resources.

I found this article to be extremely helpful. It is also a great resource in which to refer back. The blue boxes outlining key information serves as a great place outline information. As an educator, I like that it gave questions that we can ask so that we can help these students as well. This is a key resource that every teacher should have.

The State of Queensland (Department of Education and Training). (2009, July 10). Socioeconomic Disadvantage – Identification – Gifted. The Learning Place.
.....Retrieved June 27, 2011 from,

This website is a great resource for teachers and parents alike. It gives a lot of information about how to identify gifted students who may come from economically disadvantaged backgrounds. It gives you information and insight to help identify students who may otherwise slip through the cracks.

The article is directly in line with other articles that discuss testing and teacher’s bias as contributing factors to this increasing problem. The tests are designed with vocabulary that is esoteric and therefore prohibitive to those from a different culture. Teachers also begin to look for a stereotypical “gifted” student that is polite and well mannered in the classroom and are familiar with social norms. This may be an experience or lesson that those from lower SES levels may not be familiar with. This article was very interesting and really opened up my eyes.

Tyler-Wood, T., & Carri, L. (1993). Verbal measures of cognitive ability: The gifted low SES student's albatross. Roeper Review, 16(2), 102. Retrieved from

This article discusses the flaws and problems with gifted testing when it comes to children from low SES. It discusses ways that the test is different for low-income students compared to upper or middle-class students.

I found this article to be very helpful. I liked that it gave advice about placing children in the gifted program because this is something that all teachers and educators need to be able to do. I also like how the article compared the tests between the different economic classes. I think that this is a valuable way to look at the information, and one that really allows the reader to understand the issues.

VanTassel-Baska, J., & Stambaugh, T. Challenges and Possibilities for Serving Gifted Learners in the Regular Classroom. Theory into Practice, 44(3). Retrieved

This article discusses the problems and issues with having gifted learners in a regular education classroom, without a gifted program. It raises problems such as lack of depth of knowledge, limited classroom management, the requirement of teaching to diverse populations along with many other concerns.

I liked how this article raised the issue of differentiated instruction. Within the gifted population there are many different types of learners including underachievers, low-income backgrounds, and males versus females to name a few. This article discusses how a regular education teacher may struggle teaching these students along with all of the general population students.

VanTassel-Baska, Joyce. (2003). Critical Issues in the Identification and Nurturance of Promising Students from Low Income Backgrounds. The National
.....Research Center on the Gifted and Talented Senior Scholar Series. Retrieved June 28, 2011

This article summarizes the main issues for identifying and education gifted students from areas of low SES. The numbered list gives specific reasons and explanations.

I thought this was a really great resource to quickly reference and see the main issues. It would be a great article to have handy if anyone ever asked about why there were so few economically disadvantaged students in the gifted program. It is quick and to the point and the information is presented in a very straightforward way.

VanTassel-Baska, J., & Stambaugh, T. (Eds.). (2007). Proceedings from the National Leadership Conference on Low-Income Promising Learners. Washington, DC:
.....National Association for Gifted Children and Center for Gifted Education, College of William and Mary.

The conference proceedings bring lots of information from varying sources to the table. It allows for multiple perspectives on the issue of low SES students being left behind in the realm of gifted education. There is information about the issues of poverty as well as ideas on how it is impacting the education of those students.

This article had great information about how poverty happens and allowed the people at the conference to get a better understanding of the students that they were discussing. I really enjoyed reading about the plans for action to see how the group thought that they could change the way gifted education works, in order to make it more inclusive for all types of students.

Wright A. L., & Olszewski-Kubilius, P. (1993). Helping gifted children and their families prepare for college: A handbook designed to assist economically
.....disadvantaged and first-generation college attendees (RM93201). Storrs, CT: University of Connecticut, The National Research Center on the Gifted and
.....Talented. Retrieved June 28, 2011 from,

This handbook serves as a way to help students and families from low-income households prepare to send their gifted students to college. It summarizes much of the lingo and gives them an idea of what to expect.

I thought that this was a fabulous tool. It would be a great thing for all gifted high school teachers to have, as well as high school counselors. Many times in the low-income families, their gifted children are the first ones to ever be able to attend college and it is important for them to feel comfortable with the process and be able to know what to expect. This handbook would be the perfect thing to give them.

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