This section of the wiki includes resources that are general to understanding different types of cultures (African-American, Asian, Middle Eastern, Hispanic and Native American). Cultural understanding is a good first step for a teacher in being able to better serve their students, especially those from diverse backgrounds.

Jones, W. (1995-2003). African American Web Connection. Retrieved from
A comprehensive website with resources about African American history, art, poetry, authors, businessmen and entertainment. This website also features a section for kids including a math forum and a literary magazine featuring African folktales and pen pals from Africa.

Asian American Alliance (2008). Asian American Alliance Guide. Retrieved from
The Asian American Alliance is an excellent resource featuring sections on empowerment, the role of Asian-Americans in the workplace, Asian religion and spirituality, heath issues, and legal, civil and political issues relevant to Asian Americans. This well-organized and positive website also has specific sections with resources for Asian American women and youth and for scholarships for Asian American students specifically.

Hispanic Culture Online Resource (2007). Retrieved from
This website features sections discussing Hispanic culture, history, religion, cuisine, holidays and role models. It also has resources on bilingual learning tools and Spanish language software. There is a blog written by a Colombian-American working mother which discusses items as varied as Selena Gomez’s life and the running of the bulls in Spain.

The American Indian Heritage Foundation (2011). The Original ~ Retrieved from
This is an excellent resource for Native American students, featuring links to articles on Native American Culture and News, scholarship information, and a student achievement program called the National American Indian Eagle Award Program for students K-12. It also features links to and information about Indiginous Peoples’ Literature, Native American Arts, Language and culture.

The Arab American Institute (2009-2011). Arab Americans: The Arab American Institute. Retrieved from
This website features focuses on issues important to Arab Americans including sections discussing Iraq, Palestine, Lebanon, and civil rights and liberties. There are also sections regarding Arab Americans in politics, and listing resources for students to volunteer or obtain internships. The AAI Foundation also offers Youth Leadership Awards for public and community service.

This section of the wiki provides resources that show general strategies for teaching gifted students from many different minority cultures. Some resources also help promote cultural understanding, which is an important aspect of teaching students from diverse cultural backgrounds.

Harmon, D.(summer 2004). Improving Test Performance Among Culturally Diverse Gifted Students. Retrieved from

This brief article has several useful recommendations for improving test scores from standardized tests in culturally diverse students. The author explains how different aspects of test taking (test anxiety, teacher expectations, context, student attitudes) are affected culturally and how a teacher can overcome culturally differences to make standardized testing more culturally relevant.

Paik, S., Walberg, H. (2007) Narrowing the Achievement Gap: Strategies for Educating Latino, Black and Asian Students. New York, NY: Springer

This book provides effective strategies that can be used to improve academic achievement and well-being of minority students. It examines, collectively, three cultural groups on themes related to diverse families, immigration issues, and teaching and learning. The book conceptualizes opportunities and challenges in working with minority children in the context of the federal No Child Left Behind Act.

The dates on these references should come right after the names of the authors as in the ones above.
Baldwin, A. Y., & Reis, S. M. Culturally Diverse and Underserved Populations of Gifted Students (Essential Readings in Gifted Education Series). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, 2004.

This book consists of a series of articles examining how culturally biased standardized tests, societal pressures, and teacher attitudes impact the success of gifted minority students. Highlights include Dr. Baldwin’s literature review of underrepresentation of minority students in gifted programs, case studies of culturally diverse high-potential students, and an exploration of community attitudes and their impact on high-ability minority student success.

Kuykendall, C. From Rage to Hope: Strategies for Reclaiming Black & Hispanic Students. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree Press, 2004.
Ms. Kuykendall gives an overview of the problems facing African and Hispanic American students, as well as offering solutions to these problems. She explores the impact of self-image on success and institutional barriers to achievement. This book also offers strategies for such issues as motivation, discipline, fostering a positive climate for learning, and developing a home-school bond.

Boothe, D., & Staney, J. In the Eyes of the Beholder: Critical Issues for Diversity in Gifted Education. Waco, TX: Prufrock Press, 2004.
In this book, the authors explore diversity among gifted students in terms of race, gender, and socioeconomics. They discuss the importance of recognizing gifted students in a wider range of talent areas, including art. Recommendations for better identification of gifted students, specific modifications to address diversity, better guidance and counseling strategies, and specific curriculum methods are provided.

This section of the wiki is specific to teaching African American Gifted Students. It has perspectives on understanding them better culturally, and strategies to help them be more successful.

Ford, D. Reversing Underachievement Among Gifted Black Students. Waco, TX: Prufrock Press, Inc, 2011.
This book gives an overview of the issues facing gifted black students who are not achieving up to their potential and are poorly represented in gifted and AP classes. Dr. Ford provides evidence-based assessment of and recommended solutions for the achievement gap with consideration of cultural, social, institutional and familial issues that contribute to the problem.

Ladson-Billings, G. The Dreamkeepers: Successful Teachers of African American Children. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley and Sons, Inc, 2009.
In this text, Dr. Ladson-Billings combines research with anecdotal stories of eight teachers who have been successful in a predominantly African American school district. She uses examples from her own teaching experience as well as those of the teachers she discusses to provide inspiration and direction for creating an environment which fosters academic success with consideration of all the cultural and social issues involved.

Hanson, S. Swimming Against the Tide: African American Girls and Science Education. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 2009.
In this study, Dr. Hanson discusses the impact of racism and sexism in the field of science and the impact this has on the achievement of African American girls in the sciences. She uses quantitative and qualitative analysis to examine the role of race and gender in science and the difficulty young African American women interested in science encounter both from the science domain and from their own communities.

Resources for teaching gifted Hispanic Students

Michie, G. Holler If You Hear Me: The Education of a Teacher and His Students, Second Edition (Teaching for Social Justice) (The Teaching for Social Justice Series). New York, NY: Teachers College Press, 2009.
This is an anecdotal story of one teacher’s success teaching mostly Mexican American students in Chicago in the early 1990’s. Mr. Michie, instead of using the lesson plans provided by his central office, instead uses creative teaching devices such as having his students participate in debates about school policies, using audiotapes of novels, and deconstructing television talk shows. This book is an inspiring example of how using non-traditional methods to elicit high achievement from a minority population.

Perez Gabriel, A. M. Gifted and Talented Hispanic Limited EnglishProficient Students: The Constitutional Law Paradigm. Germany: VDM Verlag, 2008.
This is an analysis of the underrepresentation of Hispanic Limited English Proficient (LEP) students in gifted and talented programs in eleven school districts in Texas from 1996-2001. Specifically, this study revealed poor identification tools to determine whether Hispanic LEP students are gifted and limited awareness on the part of referring teachers. The legal implications of these students’ lack of equal opportunity is also examined.

Middle Eastern Gifted Students

Dupree, D (2003). Teaching in the Middle East, Some Observations. The Successful Professor vol. 2 (4) pages 1-3

This article contains an interview with an English professor who is an American teaching and living in the United Arab Emerites. Even though the professor is teaching at the college level he has some valuable insights on Middle Eastern students and cultures that would be useful to any teacher of students from a Middle Easter Background. (n.d) retrieved from

This web site doesn’t provide any specific strategies for teaching Middle Eastern students, but it provides an overview of what gifted education is like in the Middle East, which is useful for teachers who have students who were formerly in a Middle Eastern education system in their classes.

Ellam, B., Vidergor, H. (2011) Gifted Israeli Students' Perceptions of Teachers' Desired Characteristics: A Case of Cultural Orientation. Roeper Review, Vol. 33 issue 2. Pg 86-96

This article was written about a study complied from a survey of Israeli Jewish and Arab students about desired characteristics of teachers in gifted programs.

Asian Gifted Students

Stanley, C., Rhodieck, S., Tang, L. (August 3rd 2000). An Exploratory Study on the Teaching Concerns of Asian American Students. Retrieved from

This web site cumulates the results of a study done at Miami University. The researches presented the implications for teachers they came up with after conducting a study on Asian American students concerns pertaining to their teachers.

Shannon, F. (2005). Fred Shannon, A University EFL Teacher in Asia. Retrieved from

This is a blog maintained by an American teacher who taught English as a foreign language in Asia. He has some important insights to Asian culture and has a detailed entry on suggestions for classroom teachers in the United States teaching Asian students.

Brachman, S. (July 2011). Learning Style of the Asian American Student. Retrieved from

This is a useful Web site that contains an article on misconceptions, types, and the significance of teaching Asian American students.

Fu, D. (March 1995) My Trouble is My English: Asian Students and the American Dream. Portsmouth, NH: Boyton/Cook

This book details the learning experiences of four Laotian immigrants in an American school, specifically they language barriers they encountered as ESL students. While there are no specific gifted strategies discussed, this book provides an important awareness of language difficulties in Asian immigrant students and how teachers can be more sensitive to those language needs. Key to this book is how it discusses things from an Asian learners perspective.

Garrod, A., Kilkenny, R. (May 2007) Balancing Two Worlds: Asian American College Students Tell Their Life Stories. Cornell, NY; Cornell University Press

This book does not offer any specific teaching strategies, but it is a relevant resource to better understand Asian American students. There are many misconceptions about Asian American students made by teachers, and this book contains first person accounts from Asian students that can help clear up those misconceptions.

Native American Students

Fisher, T. (January 2008). Identifying and Teaching Gifted Native American Students. Retrieved from

This is a blog entry written by a teacher who worked on a Native American reservation, and she discusses her experiences with identifying and teaching gifted Native American students. She discusses strategies she used and provides useful tips for teachers to promote understanding of Native American students.

Robbins, R. (October 1991). American Indian Gifted and Talented Students; Their Problems and Proposed Solutions. Retrieved from

This is an excellent journal article written by a Native American scholar who actively promotes Native American education. It details problems Native American students faced and proposed solutions for teachers to help Native American Students overcome their problems.

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