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Thursday, August 18

  1. 6:13 am

Sunday, August 7

  1. page Cultural Bias in Testing edited ... {j0408982.jpg} {taking-tests.jpg} {thumbnail.jpg}  Historically, the gap in academic achie…
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    {j0408982.jpg} {taking-tests.jpg} {thumbnail.jpg} 
    Historically, the gap in academic achievement between the races has led many scholars to investigate the underlying causes of this disparity
    (Schellenberg 3).‍(Schellenberg 3)‍. While there
    ...
    the underlying barriors‍barriors‍ that have
    ...
    obtain it.
    Charles Darwin’s

    ‍Charles D‍arwin’s
    discovery of
    ...
    (Hilliard 21). Also‍Also studies have
    ...
    of African Americans.Americans.‍
    As these theories of lower ability have been disproven, environmental factors were taken into consideration for explaining the gaps between African Americans and whites in tests. Brown vs. Board of Education in the 1950’s strove to give equal access to education to all races in America, and subsequently Dr. Alvin Poussaint gave rise to more questions about racial equality in testing (Farr 1). Test fairness was challenged beginning in the late 60’s and early 70’s due to this push toward equality. Psychologists began studying the intelligence tests question by question and discovered that familiarity with subject content is critical to the test subject’s ability to answer it appropriately. Though this connection sounds innocuous enough, the discovery is fraught with cultural ramifications. Differences in income level provide children with vastly different lives. For instance, a question regarding washing machines given to students in the 1950’s would show a large gap in knowledge between socio-economic statuses, as well as races, since the two were inextricably linked in that time. In like manner, students whose young mothers had to work during their pre-school years might not recognize a middle aged woman holding an infant as a mother, but instead as a grandmother.
    ...
    test questions. For‍For this reasonreason‍ non-verbal sections
    In order to better measure intelligence, the International Test Commission set up guidelines regarding researching test materials to discover any cultural bias (Larros 2). The four aspects types of validity which deem a test question valid are: Content validity, Construct validity, Predictive validity, Consequential validity. Of the four, the focus of cultural bias is content validity (Schellenberg 7). In order for a question to be thrown out, it must not only be missed more by one cultural group. “The group’s performance on the item must be either better or worse than the group’s performance on the test as whole” (Schellenberg 8). In the mid 90’s, performance assessment began to be used to better measure student knowledge; however, this effort gave disappointing results. Because it required human judgment, it is expensive and also too subjective in grading (Schellenberg 13).
    Test bias is one of the many factors that leads to the achievement gap that many African Americans experience. In addition, teacher choice for gifted programs impacts students, as well socio-economic status. While test bias went unnoticed for many years, testing companies have been making efforts to eliminate questions that are culturally biased. While this is the case, adding other components besides IQ tests to qualifying for giftedness is surely recommended.
    REFERENCES
    Davis,‍Davis, Gary A.
    ...
    Jersey. 2011.
    Farr,

    Farr,
    J. P.
    ...
    February 1995.
    Hilliard,

    Hilliard,
    Asa G.
    ...
    30, 1976.
    Laros,

    Laros,
    Jacob. “Cultural
    ...
    March 2004.
    Schellenberg,

    Schellenberg,
    Stephen. “Test
    ...
    Gap…” April 2004. 2004.‍
    Back to Culturally Diverse
    (view changes)
    6:51 pm
  2. msg Very Informative! message posted Very Informative! I very much enjoyed your page with regard to information and visual effect. It seems that both gen…
    Very Informative!
    I very much enjoyed your page with regard to information and visual effect. It seems that both genders have stereotypes inflicted by society that limit their scope of potential in life. I respect that you tried to give both genders equal time, as each role is fraught with prescribed expectations. We as teachers must strive not to re-inforce these unfairly placed norms.

    My "aha" moment came when reading that men are less likely to go to college. This may seem very simple and obvious to some, but I think it is easy to forget about men as a gender of need. The fact that men are many times expected to "man up" at 18 and be more financially independent than women are leads to less ability for men to attend college. Also, men are the stereotypical "breadwinners" when they reproduce which adds pressure to work and not attend school. While these roles are slowly changing, men who stay home and watch children are regarded with less respect than women who do the same and are often times viewed as lazy.

    I have a deep connection to the struggle that women experience between having a career and raising children. While it may seem simple to say that putting your baby in daycare is an easy solution, I was never emotionally capable of doing so until my babies were older. I made a decision to put my career pursuits on hold and do not regret it; however, my cohorts in my teacher education class at UGA have 10 years of teaching ahead of me!

    While I have experienced the problem of balancing home and work firsthand, my question for the writers of this wiki is: Without giving reproductive advice to teens (avoiding pregnancy early), how can we teach girls and young women how to explore and balance these goals?
    6:48 pm

Saturday, August 6

  1. msg Peer Evaluations message posted Peer Evaluations I know in my system, like Dr. Cramond mentioned, we have certain conditions that state when a stude…
    Peer Evaluations
    I know in my system, like Dr. Cramond mentioned, we have certain conditions that state when a student may be removed from the gifted program. I'm not sure what they are in middle and high school, but in elementary students must maintain As and Bs. We had a student two years ago in third grade that was removed from the gifted program. Teachers met with parents and discussed their concerns with this student. He probably was a student who shouldn't have been placed in the gifted program to begin with. Sweet boy, very enthusiastic but, from what I gathered not being his teacher, he wasn't an underachiever - just an average maybe even low-average student. After he was removed from the program, he actually ended up doing better because he wasn't missing out on regular classwork one day a week. I know this is a rare case, but apparently it does happen!
    5:50 pm
  2. msg Wiki Evaluation message posted Wiki Evaluation I will answer your question, Cali. Besides these boards of experts to which Dr. Crammond referred,…
    Wiki Evaluation
    I will answer your question, Cali. Besides these boards of experts to which Dr. Crammond referred, deep investigation is conducted regarding which students missed which questions. African American students missing a question alone is not enough evidence. They require that the students have done well on other portions of the test. They compare the results of their own answers to the question. McBee's study expounds upon it more. I am glad you were able to use my page!
    11:31 am
  3. msg Wiki Evaluation message posted Wiki Evaluation In answer to your question, Cali, testing companies often get panels of experts to read the content…
    Wiki Evaluation
    In answer to your question, Cali, testing companies often get panels of experts to read the content of the test and report on any questions that seem to be biased. These bias review panels are typically made up of people who can represent different minority groups in this way.
    3:16 am
  4. msg peer eval message posted peer eval Did you mean to post this on the Highly Gifted wiki?
    peer eval
    Did you mean to post this on the Highly Gifted wiki?
    3:13 am

Friday, August 5

  1. msg Very Informative! message posted Very Informative! I really enjoyed your page. I think it was put together very well and had a lot of great informati…
    Very Informative!
    I really enjoyed your page. I think it was put together very well and had a lot of great information! I really like your main page - the title is great!

    I think it is really helpful that your important links page included a short description of each link. These will all be great resources in the future! I also loved the characteristics page. It is so interesting how different girls and boys are in terms of gifted education. I think this whole page is an "aha" moment for me! On both sides, it describes so many gifted students to a tee. I completely see how boys may be diagnosed with ADHD when they're really just curious! We have several boys in our gifted program that are diagnosed ADHD. I wonder how many of these are truly ADHD and how many are just excited about learning?

    One connection I made was with the statement that "By the time a girl reaches about age 10, she has usually been socialized in a way that she will hide her gifted ability if it has not already been encouraged and identified. In early middle school, girls just try to blend in with those around them as a coping mechanism." I teach third grade, so my students turn 9 during the yer. I can see the beginnings of this in some girls each year. I almost always have a parent come to me and say "I don't know why she's acting like this!" referring to the student acting like she doesn't know things and being more "cutesy" than academic (more than usual for a 9 year old!). This is really interesting because it is obviously a time where it is important to cultivate and help them recognize their abilities.

    In terms of suggestions... I really think you guys did a great job. Maybe you could add a little more specific info on the literature page that compared some of the findings of gender in gifted education? Did you find any research that conflicted? I always think it's interesting to see differing opinions. :)

    Great job all around!
    10:02 pm
  2. msg peer eval message posted peer eval I am quite impressed with your work on your Wiki, not to mention the highly gifted! What a great jo…
    peer eval
    I am quite impressed with your work on your Wiki, not to mention the highly gifted! What a great job. Your format is well done and easy to read and follow. I thought your opening page was very informative and concise. I am fascinated with the topic. I have had two students over the years with extremely high IQ's. As you mention, there is much consideration and counseling needed when accelerating a student. I was very interested in your case study. It sounds like even though she had some trials during her school career, she had a supportive environment for her gifts.

    Great work!

    Cathy
    9:13 pm
  3. msg Maggie Cowne message posted Maggie Cowne Maggie, You asked a question about how to teach in gender-specific ways to help both genders lea…
    Maggie Cowne
    Maggie,

    You asked a question about how to teach in gender-specific ways to help both genders learn as much as they possibly can. One of the articles I read for the annotated bibliography was:
    Freeman, J. (2004). Cultural influences on gifted gender achievement. High Ability Studies, 15(1), 7-23.

    This article explained why researchers in England think that girls are outperforming boys in Great Britain. They stated that
    one main reason is that British schools offer many same-sex classes where girls can focus on open-ended assignments and tasks. British researchers have found that females tend to perform better on these types of tasks rather than tasks that require ambiguity or memorizing and recalling facts. This would be one way to help teach in a gender-specific way to help girls achieve.

    Cali
    8:40 pm

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